Nodes (vertices) and edges (arcs). Nodes are elements in the systems. Edges are connections between them.

Directed graphs, where the connections have a direction.

Edges can have information, like weights.

Possible representations:

  • Adjacency matrix: matrix where nodes are columns and rows, where they intersect there’s a value in the matrix. For directed graphs, these matrices might not be symmetric.
  • Adjacency list: for a node, list of associated nodes